Instead of Inviting Investment and technological advancements, current availability and life style practices should be evaluated. This will give 20-30% advantage on new options explored.
What is current resource availability ?
Main focus would be on mapping water, wind, solar radiation for targeted population. Water requirements can be met with wind pumps/solar pumps for drawing water . Even rain fall patterns mapped correctly would help in sufficing drinking water requirement after harvesting. Grey water recycled could be used for irrigating small cluster of farms, ( reducing water for irrigation). Even Toilets(sanitation) linked to biogas could work in providing gas for cooking or heating. Solar cookers can work during peak solar hours for steaming base foods, biogas can support cooking with non solar hours. Water purification with solar purifiers with solar dryers are good options.
Integration of solar, wind, Biogas, is a challenge but measured, managed solutions for full life-cycles would defiantly make people sustainable without migrating to urban ghetos. Moreover migration to urban area would lower.
Funding of this resources and stakeholder engagement would be second challenge. For under developed countries stake holders are keen to invest projects which can benefit long term sustainability. Their main challenge is to map a community with common goals on agenda. A local organisation are key to such projects. Mapping resources, a community resolution to optimise resource with sustainability will attract investors and stakeholders. Responsive end user feed back on Evaluation and monitoring would be key to project success.
Measuring current needs and resources, optimising the usage, capitalising on technologies, evaluating target outputs will help in addressing current problem of Energy and Poverty.
https://steama.co/ is award winning startup providing measuring solutions for rural communities in Africa.
Solar cookers are the solution.
Steama is a fantastic solution for metering. But it is difficult to meter things other than power, water and Gas. But then , for an efficient metering, water and gas must be served at a minimum pressure, which rules out de facto most small bio gas facilities and many water installations-
Furthermore, the integration of systems is always difficult, in many ways. The further the complexity of a system, the more prone to require maintenance, which is a key element in most remote locations. I'd rather think about independent systems -even if there is an efficiency loss-, rather than complex integrations