Over the last 10 years, Tanzania has successfully reduced death rates in younger age groups and surpassed the Millennium Development Goal related to child mortality. Despite such progress, maternal mortality ratio remains high at 432 deaths per 100,000 live births. The neonatal mortality rate is also high at 26 per 1,000 live births, and stunting is persistent, affecting 42 percent of children under five-years-old. Rural areas, where the majority of Tanzania’s poor families live, are served by just 9.1 percent of the country’s total number of doctors. To address such challenges, the Government plans to, among other things, expand emergency obstetric and neonatal care, develop a facility accreditation scheme, introduce results-based financing at the facility level, improve the distribution of skilled health care workers, especially in nine regions with critical shortages, as well as increase the availability of essential medicine.