Here's an interesting article by Gallup which has been conducting surveys for 30 years on employee engagement. They find that in the US only 20 percent of staff in private sector are actively engaged (i.e., their skills and talents are being effectively leveraged to achieve organizational goals). They estimate that $500 billion a year is lost through lack of employee engagement and the health related effects of working in a toxic environment.
Their research also shows the most important factor in an employee's engagement is their line manager, and they present a number of behaviors including interpersonal skills, mentoring, inclusion, enabling, that effective managers demonstrate. Interestingly, I've found these behaviors closely match those in research in Trust, Ethics Surveys, and Human resource literature. I'll share these in another post. Please feel free to contact me if you want more information.