The 1st TOD Technical Deep Dive (TDD) was organized in May 2016, bringing together practitioners from 12 cities, representing 9 countries from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. These practitioners were joined by World Bank experts to learn from TOD experiences from Japan and other countries. The lessons were drawn from Japan’s experience with mixed-use development around their transit stations, and was organized by Tokyo Development Learning Center (TDLC), with cooperation from Japan’s Ministry of Finance (MOF), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), and the World Bank Task Team Leaders (TTLs) of the Technical Lead under the auspices of the TOD Community of Practice (CoP).
Client Challenges Identified
During the 1st TOD TDD, practitioners from WBG client cities noted that the implementation of TOD is generally complex to manage, which is particularly challenging for developing countries. Participants unanimously agreed that strategic and comprehensive planning is crucial for successful TOD implementation, with coordination between agencies often difficult. While participant cities arrived already having understood the potential of TOD and its core design concepts, there is a common need for specific mechanisms for implementation, particularly on financing and regulation. Especially as many redevelopment efforts are at the building-level, well-designed regulation is needed to enable TODs that evolve over many phases. Specific focus areas include (1) demarcation of financing and overcoming high upfront costs, (2) regulating and guiding the private sector, and (3) improving inter-jurisdictional coordination (hierarchical and cross-agency).
Takeaways from Japan’s Experience
Using a few case studies that epitomize Japan’s successful integration of urban and transportation development, participants learned a number of lessons:
- Institutional Arrangements – dedicated agency for coordination (e.g. Umekita council in Osaka)
- Policies and Planning – integrating urban/transport development (both processes happening concurrently), and incorporating future trends strategically (e.g. proactively catering to the aging population)
- Implementation Mechanisms – regulatory mechanisms for private-led development in suburban areas (e.g. Japan’s private railway companies that are also real-estate developers), and designing incentives for private developers in central areas (e.g. PPPs with clear public infrastructure contributions)
After Action Plans
At the end of the TDD, participants rated integrated urban/transport development and PPP schemes as the most valuable part of the event. The cities involved had actionable steps they could then take to improve their TOD implementations. For example, Bogota emphasized that their Urban Renovation and Transport departments would need to work closely together for their Estacion Central TOD project. Mexico City explained that they would explore ways to vertically integrate transit and real estate development by learning from Japan’s land readjustment lessons. Dar es Salaam was eager for further knowledge exchange with Japan as they develop a TOD action plan along their new BRT corridors.
For more detail on the 1st TOD Technical Deep Dive, please refer to the attached Technical Note.