Formulating a urban transport policy

    Foreward

    More than half the world’s population now lives in its cities. The urban population continues to grow,

     

    especially in developing countries. As a result, the demands on the transport system are also growing, often at

     

    a faster pace than the population. Unfortunately, the increasing demand for travel has had adverse consequences

     

    on the health and well-being of the people and the economic efficiency of cities. Severe congestion,

     

    air pollution, traffic accidents and a fast rising energy bill have become serious concerns for public policy.

     

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the urban transport sector have risen rapidly with adverse impacts on

     

    climate change. There has been an explosive growth in the consumption of non-renewable petroleum fuels.

     

    Nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road accidents every year. And the increasing difficulty of accessing jobs,

     

    education and healthcare has had adverse effects for the urban poor.

     

    Unfortunately, urban transport planning is very complex and, to be effective, urban mobility solutions need

     

    to be multi-dimensional. Planning for urban mobility is not just about good construction of facilities, but also

     

    needs to integrate numerous aspects, among others land use planning, traffic management, human behavior,

     

    safety, gender, disability, affordability, and the impact on jobs. A comprehensive and holistic approach is

     

    needed, requiring a combination of both supply side and demand side measures. Most importantly, it must

     

    accommodate the needs of the poor.

     

    All of these require a supporting policy framework that seeks to maximize the travel demand it can accommodate

     

    while minimizing the resources needed to do so. Such a framework would take into account optimal land

     

    use patterns and energy efficiency in transport systems. Few countries have so far formulated such policies

     

    and, in the absence of such a guiding policy, inappropriate interventions continue to be made.

     

    It is in this context that this guidebook has been developed by the World Bank as a possible support to formulating

     

    policies for urban transport. It highlights the key policy issues that need to be considered, the options

     

    that exist and the factors that influence a choice between the options. It recognizes that situations differ from

     

    country to country and even from city to city. Choices depend on the local context and so a “one size fits all”

     

    cannot apply. Recognizing this diversity, it refrains from making prescriptions. Its target audience is senior

     

    policy makers and recognizing their time constraints, it is short and crisp and also keeps the discussion simple.

     

    It is also useful to students of transportation and public policy as it helps highlight fundamental issues for

     

    policy makers.

     

    Marc Juhel Sector Manager, TWITR

    Rohit Khanna Program Manager, ESMAP

     

     

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     

    This guidebook has been written by a team led by O.P. Agarwal,

     

    Senior Urban Transport Specialist at the World Bank, and comprising

     

    Gouthami Padam, consultant, and Cholpon Ibraimova, program

     

    assistant. The team worked under the guidance of Jose Luis Irigoyen,

     

    Transport Sector Director, Marc Juhel, Transport Sector Manager, and

     

    Rohit Khanna, ESMAP Program Manager.

     

    This guidebook follows up on an earlier paper of November 2012

     

    that was written jointly by the World Bank and the Asian Development

     

    Bank for the G-20. The previous paper was reviewed by several

     

    colleagues within the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank,

     

    who gave very useful comments. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation

     

    and Development and the International Transport Forum

     

    (ITF) also gave very valuable feedback. The authors wish to thank Ajay

     

    Kumar, Arturo Ardila Gomez, and Thierry Desclos, all from the World

     

    Bank; Zhi Liu, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (ex–World Bank); Alexis

     

    Robert, OECD; and Jose Viegas, Mary Crass, Steve Perkins, and Phillipe

     

    Crist, all from the ITF.

     

    This follow-up effort was able to incorporate several suggestions

     

    received from the reviewers at that time that could not be incorporate

     

    into the November 2012 version due to time constraints. This version

     

    of the guidebook has received additional comments from three

     

    practitioners with several years of experience in formulating and

     

    implementing policies. These have been extremely useful, as these

     

    individuals were able to contribute the perspective of those for whom

     

    this guidebook is primarily intended. Thanks are due to Anil Baijal,

     

    I.P. Gautam, and Ramon Arevalo for these comments.

     

    Sincere thanks are due to Prof. Jose Gomez-Ibanez of the Harvard

     

    Kennedy School of Government for his extensive and helpful comments.

     

    The authors are grateful to him for having taken the time to

     

    review this guidebook despite his busy teaching schedule.

     

    Lloyd Wright and K. Sakamoto of the Asian Development Bank made

     

    significant contributions to the November 2012 version, and the

     

    authors appreciate their help.

     

    Thanks are also due to Jose Luis Irigoyen, Marc Juhel, and Rohit

     

    Khanna for their constant guidance and advice; to Ivan Jaques, a

     

    constant source of strength and advice; and to Sam Zimmerman, the

     

    fountain of information on urban transport, who greatly supported

     

    this effort by contributing several pieces. The team would especially

     

    like to thank Marc Juhel, Rohit Khanna, Arturo Ardila Gomez, and

     

    Ajay Kumar for reviewing the draft a second time.

     

    The financial and technical support provided by the Energy Sector

     

    Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) is gratefully acknowledged.

     

    ESMAP, a global knowledge and technical assistance program

     

    administered by the World Bank, assists low- and middle-income

     

    countries in increasing their know-how and institutional capacity

     

    to achieve environmentally sustainable energy solutions for poverty

     

    reduction and economic growth. ESMAP is funded by Australia,

     

    Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, the

     

    Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the World

     

    Bank Group.

     

    The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper

     

    do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank or the governments

     

    it represents. The authors are solely responsible for them.