This Handbook of Good Practices in Funding Urban Transport is the product of a joint initiative between the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy (MEDDE) and the Agence Française de Développement (AFD). It was written by the association “Cooperation for Urban Mobility in the Developing World” (CODATU), and draws from subject-based analyses and case studies, with input from CEREMA (Centre for Studies on Risks, Environment, Mobility and Land Planning).
The challenge of financing urban transport
According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban citizens among the world’s total population was estimated at 3.36 billion inhabitants in 2011, and is set to reach 6.3 billion by 2050. This urban growth will be concentrated in the cities of the developing world over the coming decades. In 2020, 50% of the Asian population will be living in urban areas. In Africa, the same figures will be reached in 2035. As a result, urban mobility will grow very rapidly, accelerated by improvements in living standards. Transit within urban areas is provided by a combination of modes of transport which can vary greatly. These modes of transport constitute a system and it is this system as a whole which has to be considered when defining effective mobility policies. Within the systems, the international community is giving greater emphasis to sustainable solutions in which public forms of transport and non-motorised transport are set to play a major role, while the car plays a complementary role. Nonetheless, findings in various parts of the world show that there has not been a sufficient amount of attention or effort given to these public modes of transport and other “active” modes to sufficiently meet mobility needs under acceptable conditions. Public officials are therefore faced with three challenges in the years to come:
➤➤ the challenge posed by current qualitative and quantitative shortcomings of public transport in its various forms;
➤➤ the challenge of urban growth which creates new needs that have to be met due to the increase in the size of the population and longer travelling distances;
➤➤ the challenge posed by environmental issues (energy and climate change) which requires finding a new balance between private and public modes of transport both in the developed and the developing world.