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    A discussion of the importance of proper component selection and whole system integration for long term performance of off-grid (stand-alone) photovoltaic systems in rural developing world locations. 11 African off-grid PV systems were inspected and found to have similar deficiencies in system configuration, materials used and installation methods. Various components are discussed, with recommended best practices to improve standards of quality for hard-wired PV system installations.


    Keywords; off-grid; stand-alone; rural electrification; photovoltaic; distributed; PV; balance of system; battery; inverter; developing world; training; standards; best practices; power center; nexus;