Child Development History Of India
India has around 150 million and more children, who are below the age of 6 years. A large number of them live in economic and social environment, which impede the child's physical and mental development. These conditions include poverty, poor environmental sanitation, disease, infection, inadequate access to primary health care; inappropriate child caring and feeding practices. Our Govt. has several policy on child development. Navjivan Foundation focus in this topic from its beginning . This organization work on different topic of child development like Child Laboure & Abuse, Child welfare, Child death, Child education and at present our institution help to give elementary education to the orphan or street children and our future motto to establish a orphan home with proper medical facility and recreation center.
Generally Child development refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. There are various definitions of periods in child development, since each period is a continuum with individual differences regarding start and ending.
Some age-related development periods and examples of defined intervals are: newborn (ages 0–1 month); infant (ages 1 month – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 13–20). The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. In addition there are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that comprise child development.
Child Laboure & Abuse
Child labour refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. Child labour was utilized to varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workers' and children's rights. In many developed countries, it is considered inappropriate or exploitative if a child below a certain age works. An employer is usually not permitted to hire a child below a certain minimum age. This minimum age depends on the country and the type of work involved. States ratifying the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1973, have adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16. Child labour laws in the United States set the minimum age to work in an establishment without restrictions and without parents' consent at age 16 and in India 18.
Child abuse is the physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Most child abuse occurs in a child's home, with a smaller amount occurring in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. The mental health journal states that child abuse is defined as any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. Child abuse can take several forms: The four main types of abuse are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect.
Our organization gives importance on to restrict child abuse and child laboure since 2005 and we have meet many more parents and giving awareness to not abuse any rough language. In India due to illiteracy and poverty rural or slum area people abuse their children in theirs regional language and in some cases if the child is sentimental he or she become suicide or leave that house or treat others elders. We have suggest parents by some quotation like, do not abuse small child, do not threaten small child, do not discussion any rough matter in front of small child, do not take wine or drugs in front of child or physically or mentally any torchers to child. In child laboure our volunteers team ready to reach near employers on where the child labours are utilizing generally in hotel or canteen and as a result comes that the parents are sending them due to poverty to earn something for their family and on the others the employer with little spend get more and more income. In this stage we have resize some children and send them to our school.
Promotes the safety, permanency, and well being of children and families by connecting child welfare, adoption and related professionals as well as concerned citizens to timely, essential information. Child welfare is used to describe a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are 18 or under and encourage family stability. These typically include investigation of alleged child abuse, child protective services, foster care, adoption services, and services aimed at supporting at-risk families so they can remain intact. Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the five situations, which are often collectively termed child abuse: Neglect including the failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm and/or gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs, Emotional abuse, Child sexual abuse, Physical abuse, Psychological abuse.
Navjivan Foundation on child welfare from 2004 giving importance and we have try to give proper knowledge to the parents and several time arranged seminar in the rural areas. Our suggestion to not give marriage to their children below the eighteen and in this matter arranging toys drama visible to them the disadvantages of early marriage and send them for the elementary education at least. We have meet collect some rural children and try to pull or concentrate to wards education and in this connection distribute some child cartoon picture books and by Yoga or physical trepanning tries to feet them both mentally and physically.
As is the case in many developing countries, poverty and lack of educational opportunities have created the basis for child labour in India, especially in the agriculture and handicraft sectors. Contrary to some prevalent myths, children are not employed as weavers either because they have nimble fingers or because they are paid less than adults. Children are employed they have parents are teaching them skills which are perfected only after a considerable period of time and which are not as easily performed by children. Compensation in the carpet industry is on the 'piece rate system' and not on the basis of hours. The Constitution of Indian Prohibits the employment of any child under the age of 14 years in factories, mines, or other hazardous and non-hazardous employment. India's child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 strictly regulates conditions in industries where children are still permitted to be employed and has established substantial penalties for violators, including fines and imprisonment. Exempted from the laws, however, are children working in the family home where specialized crafts are passed from one generation to the next. Ultimately, it is going to take more than laws to remove children from the work force in India. More important, however, are safety nets that ensure replacements or supplemental family income when children are removed from the work place or other employment opportunities and education. Ultimately, the universal availability of compulsory free education for all children in India is what will make the elimination of child labour a reality. Happiness, joy and laughter – that is a child’s entire world should consist of. After all, childhood is perhaps the most special stage of life. And this is what Plan hopes to achieve for every child.
When a parent dies, you lose your past; when a child dies, you lose your future. India contributes 21 pc of the global burden of child deaths. The world cannot continue with business as usual when every year nearly 11 children die before their fifth birthday from easily preventable and readily treatable causes – almost 90 percent of these deaths occur in 42 countries of South Asia and Sub Saharan Africa. What is baffling is that a vast majority of these deaths could be easily averted. Scientific evidence available today tells us that in India alone more than 1 million child lives could be saved from scaling up known and proven cost effective interventions. Under the age of five, India contributes 25 percent of the world’s child deaths. It is evident that a major turnaround in India will ensure a significant impact globally! The message of hope in this challenging scenario is that a vast majority of children can be saved through a combination of good care, nutrition, and medical treatment. It is believed that other easy measures could prevent 90% of diarrhea deaths, 62% of pneumonia deaths, 100% measles deaths 92% malaria deaths, 44% HIV/AIDS deaths and 52% neonatal fatalities.
In India generally child death happening before the age of 5 years and the reason behind it is parents neglect and lack of proper knowledge. For the children in proper time carry to the Govt. hospital for proper vaccine is necessary otherwise child will effect with several disease and as a result to death. We have met the parents from 2005 and aware them for solve this problem. We call for read our disease broachers.
If the future of a country is its children, India has serious cause for concern. Two million children below the age of five die every year in India, giving it the dubious distinction of being the country with the highest number of such deaths. From the report over 400,000 of our newborns die within 24 hours of birth, again the highest figure in the world. Globally, this figure is two million. India accounts for one-fifth of newborn deaths, those dying within a month of birth, and also has one-third of the world’s undernourished children. In short, despite its commendable economic growth in the past decade, the country has made little progress in controlling child mortality. This is when these deaths could be easily prevented with low-cost interventions. Not surprisingly, these rates are not the same within India. There are huge differences among various states, income groups, tribal groups and castes. According to a paper published in the Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, child mortality rates among the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes are 33 to 100% higher than in other categories. The fact that India ranks 171 out of 175 countries in the world in public health spending speaks for itself.
Navjivan Foundation Child Education Camp Social Gallery
Child life is a life of human nature can develop human being and childhood is a stage in human development. Child education regards education in early childhood, one of the most vulnerable stages in life. Infants and toddlers experience life more holistically than any other age group. Very young children do not learn social, emotional, cognitive, language, and physical lessons separately. Adults who are most helpful to young children interact in ways that understand that the child is learning from the whole experience, not just that part of the experience to which the adult gives attention. Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education. In North America this stage of education is usually known as elementary education. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education, though in many jurisdictions it is permissible for parents to provide it. The transition to secondary school or high school is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some educational systems have separate middle schools with the transition to the final stage of education taking place at around the age of fourteen. The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeric amongst all pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, geography, history, math, and other social sciences. The relative priority of various areas, and the methods used to teach them, are an area of considerable political debate. Typically, primary education is provided in schools, where the child will stay in steadily advancing classes until they complete it and move on to high school/secondary school. Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year. Specialist teachers in certain subject areas may assist this teacher, often music or physical education. The continuity with a single teacher and the opportunity to build up a close relationship with the class is a notable feature of the primary education system. India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India.[Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions.[The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012. However, India continues to face challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 40% of the population is illiterate and only 15% of the students reach high school. As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. As of 2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000, plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education.
From 2006 we have arranged child education for development of preliminary education and literacy by our moving camps from slum area to urban but at present it is in the shap of school.