The nine important measures which should be taken to reduce poverty are as follows: 1. Accelerating Economic Growth 2. Agricultural Growth 3. Speedy Development of Infrastructure 4. Accelerating Human Resource Development 5. Growth of Non-Farm Employment 6. Access to Assets 7. Access to Credit 8. Public Distribution System (PDS) 9. Direct Attack on Poverty: Special Employment Schemes for the Poor.
The poverty alleviation can be categorized based on whether it is targeted for rural areas or urban areas. Most of the programmes are designed to target rural poverty as the prevalence of the poverty is high in rural areas. Also targeting of the poverty is challenging in rural areas due to various geographic and infrastructure limitations. The programmes can be mainly grouped into 1) Wage employment programmes, 2) Self-employment programmes, 3) Food security programmes, 4) Social security programmes and 5) Urban poverty alleviation programmes.
Extending property rights protection to the poor is one of the most important poverty reduction strategies a nation can implement.Securing property rights to land, the largest asset for most societies, is vital to their economic freedom. The World Bank concludes that increasing land rights is ‘the key to reducing poverty’ citing that land rights greatly increase poor people’s wealth, in some cases doubling it. It is estimated that state recognition of the property of the poor would give them assets worth 40 times all the foreign aid since 1945.Although approaches varied, the World Bank said the key issues were security of tenure and ensuring land transactions were low cost. In China and India, noted reductions in poverty in recent decades have occurred mostly as a result of the abandonment of collective farming in China and the cutting of government red tape in India.
Employment and productivity
Economic growth has the indirect potential to alleviate poverty, as a result of a simultaneous increases in employment opportunities and labour productivity.A study by researchers at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) of 24 countries that experienced growth found that in 18 cases, poverty was alleviated. However, employment is no guarantee of escaping poverty, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimates that as many as 40% of workers are poor, not earning enough to keep their families above the $2 a day poverty line. For instance, in India most of the chronically poor are wage earners in formal employment, because their jobs are insecure and low paid and offer no chance to accumulate wealth to avoid risks.This appears to be the result of a negative relationship between employment creation and increased productivity, when a simultaneous positive increase is required to reduced poverty.
Building opportunities for self-sufficiency
Making employment opportunities available is just as important as increasing income and access to basic needs. Poverty activist Paul Polak has based his career around doing both at once, creating companies that employ the poor while creating "radically" affordable goods. In his book Out of Poverty he argues that traditional poverty eradication strategies have been misguided and fail to address underlying problems. He lists, “Three Great Poverty Eradication Myths”: that we can donate people out of poverty, that national economic growth will end poverty, and that Big Business, operating as it does now, will end poverty.Economic models which lead to national growth and more big business will not necessarily lead to more opportunities for self-sufficiency. However, businesses designed with a social goal in mind, such as micro finance banks, may be able to make a difference.
Poverty is a global issue that is complex and multi-dimensional, and it is one of the most dangerous diseases ravaging mankind world wide. The quality of life one lives is greatly tied to whether he is poor or not, as such government of all levels world wide could make attempt to roll out programmes that can alleviate poverty. Poverty is a concept that entails socioeconomic and political deprivation which may affect individual's households or communities and which may result in lack of access to the basic necessities of life.
Modern Africa suffers from a number of extremely unfortunate influences such as ethnic warfare, conflicts, despotism, starvation, natural disaster, AIDS and other epidemics coupled with economic decline in standards of living. Africa lags behind all other countries considered in development, the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is now the heaviest in the globe with fastest increase in urban migration and decayed infrastructure. Poverty is very pervasive in some developing a countries. Data on poverty and unemployment are staggering and reveals that about 50% of the population has no access to safe water. More than 50% of the population does not have access to primary health care, while most Sub-Saharan Africans consume less than 30% of minimum required protein and vitamin intake due to poverty (World Bank, 2005)
The devastating effects of poverty can be seen in such areas as health, education and social violence. Poverty leads drastically to lack of access to health services and proper medical treatment which also leads to untimely death and wastage of human life. A poor person suffers from hunger and starvation which can lead to mental and physical health problems and eventual lower life expectancy Poverty can also be associated with drug abuse among the poor who are more likely to indulge in fragrant abuse of doctor's prescriptions. Poverty is a great disease and as such, it reflects the dynamic relationship between poverty and poor health. The detrimental health effects of poverty have a lot of implications among which are perpetual impoverishment of national and personal health and financial resources and threats to economic, social and political structures of the entire society.
Another effect of poverty is seen in education. Education from primary school to high school is identifiable and meaningful in a life and is also the surest weapon against poverty. Children who live at or below poverty level generally perform more poorly educationally than those who live above poverty line. Poor children have a great deal less access to health care and consequently are more prone to playing truancy from school many times in the academic year. Additionally, poor children, to a large extent, are much more likely to suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches, and other hunger related illnesses and problem, which adversely affect their focus and concentration and academic performance
Again, areas strongly affected by abject poverty tend to be more prone to violence. In my country Nigeria for example, cases of violence abound in areas associated with the downtrodden like in Niger Delta areas ( where militants always agitate for better life from oil resources), in parts of the Northern States ( where religious disturbances are perpetrated by the poor masses), and ' Alaye ' clashes in the West ( where poverty stricken miscreants indulge in unleashing violence). The Militants in the Niger Delta has snowballed into ''profitable'' business of kidnapping for ram some by unemployed youths. During these acts of violence, properties worth billions of naira are destroyed, thereby further impoverishing the country.
The effects of poverty as presented, no doubt, reveal that poverty is a dangerous social and economic evil that can destroy the fabrics of a nation's sovereign existence. It is therefore, alarming and disheartening to realize that over 70% of Nigeria population is under the devastating grip of poverty. Hunger has negative effects on the physical, social, emotional and cognitive development of children. This, indeed, calls for mutual concern on how it can be eliminated before it devours the whole nation.
As I have passion and zeal to help in the betterment of the life of my fellow human beings, I passionately appeal to the World Bank Group to help me in alleviating and reducing abject poverty in some of my communities where people suffer and die due to hunger, lack and starvation.
As mentioned above the important measures for reducing poverty,the first one is Accelerating Economic Growth
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP, usually in per capita terms
An increase in economic growth caused by more efficient use of inputs (such as labor productivity, physical capital, energy or materials).
Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the accumulation of human and physical capital and the increase in productivity arising from technological innovation.
Before industrialization technological progress resulted in an increase in the population, which was kept in check by food supply and other resources, which acted to limit per capita income, a condition known as the Malthusian trap. The rapid economic growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was remarkable because it was in excess of population growth, providing an escape from the Malthusian trap. Countries that industrialized eventually saw their population growth slow down, a phenomenon known as the demographic transition.
Increases in productivity are the major factor responsible for per capita economic growth – this has been especially evident since the mid-19th century. Most of the economic growth in the 20th century was due to increased output per unit of labor, materials, energy, and land (less input per widget). The balance of the growth in output has come from using more inputs. Both of these changes increase output. The increased output included more of the same goods produced previously and new goods and services
Another very good point you have mentioned is education. In India, we also see the problem of education. Again the same saying that there are many barriers like no sufficient schools in remote villages,no proper land for school, no connectivity for students. Not only this, if the parents wants to give education to their wards they fails due to no earning member in the family who can earn the daily livelihood that force parents to send their children to work rather than sending them to school.
Population trends and dynamics can have an enormous effect on prospects for poverty reduction and sustainable development. Poverty is influenced by – and influences – population dynamics, including population growth, age structure, and rural-urban distribution. All of this has a critical impact on a country’s development prospects and prospects for raising living standards for the poor. Investments in better health, including reproductive health, are essential for individual security and for reducing mortality and morbidity, which in turn improve a country’s productivity and development prospects.
Reproductive health and poverty reduction Access to sexual and reproductive health, including family planning, can affect population dynamics through voluntary fertility reduction and reductions in infant and maternal mortality. Improved reproductive health also helps individuals, particularly young women, break out of intergenerational cycles of poverty. When women and couples are empowered to plan whether and when to have children, women are better enabled to complete their education; women’s autonomy within their households is increased; and their earning power is improved. This strengthens their economic security and well-being and that of their families. Cumulatively, this contributes to development progress and poverty reduction.
In addition to improving general health and well-being, analysis shows that meeting the reproductive health and contraceptive needs of all women in the developing world more than pays for itself. For every dollar invested in contraception, the cost of pregnancy-related care is reduced by $1.43. The lifetime opportunity cost related to adolescent pregnancy – a measure of the annual income a young mother misses out on over her lifetime – ranges from 1 per cent of annual gross domestic product in a large country such as China to 30 per cent of annual gross domestic product in a small economy such as Uganda. If adolescent girls in Brazil and India were able to wait until their early twenties to have children, the increased economic productivity would equal more than $3.5 billion and $7.7 billion, respectively.
A doubling of the population in the least developed countries means that between now and 2050 the working-age population will increase by about 15 million persons per year, on average, and that the labor force will increase by 33 thousand persons per day. Every day over this period about 33,000 young men and women will enter the labor force and will be looking for productive and remunerative employment that allows them to escape poverty, stay out of poverty, or simply live a better life than their parents did. In the least developed countries, about 80 per cent of the work force is unemployed, underemployed or are only vulnerably employed. The extent to which they can contribute economically will have huge impacts on their countries’ futures, as well as on their own lives.
Somehow the poverty is increasing due to population and population growing so quickly because
The huge growth in the world population over the past two centuries is largely the result of advances in modern medicines and improvements in living standards. These have significantly reduced infant, child and maternal mortality, contributing to an increase in life expectancy. Although fertility levels have declined, they have not fallen at the same pace as mortality levels.
The world population will continue to grow for decades to come. This is the result of ‘population momentum’: Because of improved survival rates and past high fertility levels, there are more women of reproductive age today. This will contribute to a relatively large number of births, even if those women have fewer children on average. Although population growth is, today, largely attributable to population momentum, after 2060 it will almost exclusively be driven by fertility levels in the world’s least developed countries.
General population trends mask considerable differences between countries. On the one side stand the world’s least developed countries, which continue to have high fertility levels. According to conservative projections, the population of the world’s least developed countries will double by 2050, and in some countries it will even triple. On the other side are high-income and rising-income countries, which are experiencing slow population growth or no population growth at all. Whereas the former continue to have large, growing, populations of young people, the latter have large, growing populations of older persons. (There are some countries experiencing a decline in population size. However, in most cases this is not only the result of low fertility, but also the result of high mortality and emigration due to weak and deteriorating economic, social and political conditions.)
While demographics vary considerably at national levels, the overall trends have global implications for sustainable development. The global climate will change no matter where greenhouse gases are emitted, for example. Efforts to sustainably meet the needs and desires of a growing world population will have implications for all countries – as will failure to meet these needs.
While surges in population will bring challenges, they also represent humanity's success. The move from higher to lower mortality and fertility reflects achievements in health, education and human rights. Falling fertility levels also create opportunities for countries to realize a demographic dividend – the economic growth that can occur when there is an increase in the number of people of working age and a decrease in the number of dependents.
As per UN
- By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
- By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
- Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
- By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
- By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
- Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
- Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
Child poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and can be measured in many ways. It is imperative that governments make a commitment to child poverty reduction, recognizing and responding to child poverty is the first priority, alongside building expertise and improved approaches to child poverty measurement. Understanding child poverty to the fullest possible extent is vital. While an adult may fall into poverty temporarily, falling into poverty in childhood can last a lifetime – rarely does a child get a second chance at an education or a healthy start in life. As such, child poverty threatens not only the individual child, but is likely to be passed on to future generations, entrenching and even exacerbating inequality in society.
Social protection for child
In recent years, social protection has emerged as a major new focus in efforts to reduce poverty around the world. Social protection can be understood as a set of public actions which address not only income poverty and economic shocks, but also social vulnerability, thus taking into account the inter-relationship between exclusion and poverty. Through income or in-kind support and programmes designed to increase access to services (such as health, education and nutrition), social protection helps realize the human rights of children and families. Social protection strategies are also a crucial element of effective policy responses to adverse economic conditions, addressing not only vulnerabilities caused or exacerbated by recent crises but also increasing preparedness to future uncertainty.
Making social protection more child-sensitive has the potential to benefit not only children, but also their families, their communities and national development as a whole. Child- sensitive social protection systems mitigate the effects of poverty on families, strengthen families in their child care role, and enhance access to basic services for the poorest and most marginalized. Since many at-risk children live outside family care, child-sensitive social protection systems must be responsive to this vulnerable group, as well as to children facing abuse or discrimination at home.
Achieving child-sensitive social protection
Social protection does not have to explicitly target children in order to benefit them. Small nuances in how social protection is delivered have the potential to make a huge difference for children. Governments and partners works for social protection and help ensure it is child-sensitive. The following principles should be considered in the design, implementation and evaluation of child sensitive social protection programmes:
• Avoid adverse impacts on children, and reduce or mitigate social risks that directly affect children’s lives;
• Intervene as early as possible where children are at risk, in order to prevent irreversible impairment or harm to children;
• Consider the age and gender specific risks and vulnerabilities of children throughout the life-cycle;
• Mitigate the effects of shocks, exclusion and poverty on families, recognizing that families raising children need support to ensure equal opportunity;
• Make special provision to reach children who are particularly vulnerable and excluded, including children without parental care, and who are marginalized within their families or communities due to their gender, disability, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS or other factors, and;
• Consider the mechanisms and intra-household dynamics that may affect how children are reached, with particular attention paid to the special circumstances of women;
• Include the voices and opinions of children and youth themselves in the understanding and design of social protection systems and programmes
Building integrated social protection systems
UNICEF is committed to providing technical and financial assistance to national governments and counterparts in the development of integrated social protection strategies. Taking an integrated approach to social protection entails:
• Addressing both economic and social vulnerabilities;
• Providing comprehensive packages of interventions based on a population’s needs and context;
• Coordinating interventions with appropriate supply-side investments and enhancing the availability and quality of services;
• Facilitating inter-sectoral coordination that addresses the multidimensional nature of poverty and exclusion;
• Framing social protection strategies within a broader set of social and economic policies that promote human development and growth.
UNICEF supports programme countries to conduct a comprehensive Situation Analysis of Women and Children (SitAn) within the country programme or national planning cycle. It is done in preparation for or as an input to the review of the national development plan and poverty reduction strategy. It forms part of the UN contribution to country analytic work, including the Common Country Assessment (CCA). It also supports national reporting to the Child Rights and CEDAW Committee.
The primary informational purpose of a SitAn is to improve the understanding of decision-makers, partners and all other stakeholders of the current status of children’s and women’s rights in the country and the causes of shortfalls and inequities. Child poverty/deprivation analysis is therefore a central part of any SitAn, providing an overview of both the status of children, the causes of child deprivations and inequity. A comprehensive child poverty/deprivation analysis demonstrates how monetary poverty is a mediating and driving factor of many crucial issues that affect child wellbeing and increases the risk of deprivation. Many of the observed child deprivations (not attending school, low quality dwelling materials, for instance) are, in part, manifestations of low monetary resources and thus linked to the risk of poverty. Deprivation and monetary poverty have large overlaps and significant interactions. Using an integrated approach that identifies children who are poor (living in poor households) alongside identifying child level deprivations can provide significant insights for policy design and performance, which is the chief objective of any SitAn.
Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities
UNICEF launched a Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities in September 2007 to strengthen the profile of children at the national policy table. The study aims to influence the economic and social policies that affect resource allocations, and hopes to make children a priority in national programmes addressing the poverty of families raising children. The study addresses the health, education and protection needs of children living in poor, vulnerable households, unsafe circumstances and disadvantaged communities on the global study on child poverty and disparities blog.
Despite some progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, millions of women and children are still left behind – even in countries that have demonstrated improvement overall. UNICEF has taken on an enhanced organizational commitment to leveraging evidence, analysis, policy and partnerships to promote gender equality and deliver results for all children. The Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities, carried out in 50 countries and seven regions with UNICEF support, is part of that effort.
The study produces comparable analyses on child poverty and disparities in nutrition, health, education and child and social protection through collaboration with national and international partners. The results and process of the study have generated evidence, insights and networks that have been used as leverage to influence national development plans, and inspired and fed into poverty reduction strategies or sector-wide approaches, common country assessments and other development instruments. With support from a number of experts and international research centres, the social policy and economical analysis unit in UNICEF's division of policy and planning created a comprehensive Global Study Guide to help carry out the study in each participating country.
Extreme poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 1990. While this is a remarkable achievement, one in five people in developing regions still live on less than $1.25 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount, plus many people risk slipping back into poverty.
Poverty is more than the lack of income and resources to ensure a sustainable livelihood. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality.
The issue of poverty has for some time now been of great concern to many nations, rich and poor alike. As a result, poverty reduction strategies have been at the center stage of development programmes. Poor nations are more eager than ever to get out of poverty, while the rich nations are increasingly aware of of the need to promote security through poverty reduction. The most difficult challenges facing poor nations and their citizens is poverty. It is also the major hurdle that must be overcome in the pursuit of sustainable socioeconomic growth.
In my country, Nigeria, available statistics indicate that the poverty rate of the population increased from 27% in 1980 to about 70% by 1996. By 1999, it was estimated that more than 70% of Nigerians lived in great abject poverty and instead of getting better as the years come by, it get gets worse. The problems created by poverty in Nigeria are multifarious. Some families or individuals could not even eat up to one square meal a day, no job opportunities, absence of good and conducive entrepreneurial environment for self employment, lack of infrastructural facilities and general low standard of living, malnutrition and starvation. Today, about 20% of Nigerians live below the "breadline"