Both Ghana and Ivory Coast started off as world class growers and exporters of cocoa, the crop from which chocolate is derived and other products.
But based on their ideological difference, Felix Houphouet-Boigny permitted FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) by France in Ivory Coast’s Cocoa sector while Kwame Nkrumah refused Britain’s Foreign Direct Investment in Ghana’s Cocoa sector.
The "chocolate" histories of Ghana and Ivory Coast are histories of economic and political tradeoffs.
- At independence, the "Chocolate" Policy of Kwame Nkrumah was to sacrifice Ghana's prospect for immediate accelerated economic growth in favor of greater political independence. "Seek ye first the political kingdom and everything shall be added onto it" was a popular saying of Nkrumah.
- At independence, the "Chocolate" Policy of Felix Houphouet-Boigny was to sacrifice Ivory Coast's long-term political independence in favor of its prospect for immediate accelerated economic growth that came with jobs and the simmering glance of skyscraper urban infrastructure.
The net result for both countries as of today is that Ghana has more country ownership and citizens' control of the cocoa value chain than Ivory Coast; whereas Ivory Coast receives more money for cocoa than Ghana, but with little political independence and high costs of safeguards.