Does anyone know how to access contract value by issuing a bond?
The following is a quote from the IIASA Global Energy Assessment Chapter 16 Fig. 16.1 this is a bit outside the scope of bonding ETF RE yet it's a refreshingly accurate description of what has been encountered in what I would describe as polarity, still giving thought to the issues of social credibility and receptivity as issues for entry.
A recent approach to understanding transitions is the “multi-level perspective” (Rip and Kemp, 1998 ; Geels, 2002 ; Geels and Schot, 2007 ; Markard and Truffer, 2008 ). Combining insights from evolutionary theory and the sociology of technology, this perspective conceptualizes major transformative change as the product of interrelated processes at the three levels of niche, regime, and landscape. The framework emphasizes the incremental nature of innovation in socio-technical regimes. A niche is a network of similar projects carried out by innovating actors who seek to challenge the incumbent and dominant socio-technical practice (regime), such as a distributed generation using renewable energy versus a regime of centralized electricity generation. Regimes and niches develop in the context of a socio-technical landscape, which consists of both hard geographical features, such as resource availability and infrastructure, and “soft” elements, such as political conditions, societal trends, and economic fluctuations. The socio-technical landscape provides the exogenous environment for regime change and is a source of major selection pressures on prevailing regimes. Transitions, i.e., shifts from one stable sociotechnical regime to another, occur when regimes are destabilized through landscape pressures, which in turn provide breakthrough opportunities for niche innovations. Figure 16.1 visualizes the multi-level model.
A dynamic representation of the multi-level perspective on transitions. This perspective distinguishes between the micro-level of niches, the meso-level of sociotechnical regimes, and the macro-level of landscapes. Innovations and experiments can only break through when there is suffi cient pressure on the socio-technical regime. The small arrows at the bottom represent the niche innovations and experiments, which join together, become powerful (as in the thicker arrows), start infl uencing the sociotechnical regimes, leading to major changes in technology, market, user practices, etc., and eventually become part of the landscape. Source: Geels, 2002 .